• Collaboration with MOE Educational Psychologist, Psychologist/ Therapists in Hospital and Sped School.
  • Consultation to teachers to facilitate better understanding of the students’ needs and how to support them.
  • Co-ordination and contribution to case conferences in schools. (Case Management Team)
  • Set up and maintenance of records on special needs students
  • Conduct workshop and sharing sessions.
  • Provision of Withdrawal, In-Class and Recess Support, Specialised Remediation and implementation of Individual Education Plans.
  • Providing teaching and learning resources.
  • Provision of skills training. 
  • Provision of feedback to parents on the needs and progress of the special needs students.

Characteristics of Special Needs



What is Autism?

  • Brain processes information differently or think differently
  • Delay in meeting developmental milestones
  • Is not an illness/ disease
  • There is no cure
  • People with ASD can LEARN skills to adapt
  • As the person with ASD grows, the nature and intensity of the behaviour may change

Core Characteristics

Social Interaction

Social Communication

Flexibility of Thoughts & Behaviour

Poor eye contact

Echo another person’s speech (echolalia);  may confuse with pronouns “I” and “You”

Flapping of hands, spinning or spinning objects, head banging, staring at ceiling fans for hours, etc.

Prefer to be alone; may interact with others but only to obtain objects or to talk about own stereotypic interest

May exhibit unusual speech pattern; use words without understanding their meanings

Difficulty coping with changes in routines, the environment, etc.

Unable to understand other’s feelings

 Use and understanding of language tend to be literal; unable to initiate and engage in a conversation

Other Characteristics

  •   Sensory
  •   Medical
  •   Learning style
  •   Special Talents



Simplify your language (Low, Slow and Show)

Have Visual support for communication

Implement the correct level of prompt

Need Time to respond

Engage and Disengage



What is Dyslexia?

  • Is a condition that makes it very difficult for children to read, write and/or spell
  • Often, weaknesses may be seen in areas such as of language development, memory and sequencing
  • Having dyslexia does not mean that your child’s ability to learn is below average
  • Biological / genetic
  • A difference in the part of the brain that deals with language
  • Brain processes information differently
  • Continues throughout life
  • Unlikely that a student will “suddenly” develop dyslexia
  • Cannot be cured but symptoms can be reduced
  • NOT due to bad parenting / teaching


Impairment/immaturity of organization of movement


Immature fine motor skills development


Impairment of ability to solve mathematical problems


Characteristics of Dyslexia

Mispronunciation of words

Confusion over similar sounding words

Problems comprehending prepositions / connectives, information that require spatial conceptualisation

Outline/shape of word is similar to correct word but some letters are confused

Words/phrases may be foreshadowed/telescoped

Misunderstanding the meaning of words that are within capacity of age range

Difficulties with sequencing

Reverses/mirrors letters, punctuation marks

Confusion whether there should be one or two words

Difficulty with the rhythm of words, getting syllables in the wrong place

Confusion in processing requests / information

Letters may be correct but in the wrong order


  • Multi-sensory teaching
  • Differentiated Instructions
  • Over –learning is essential
  • Visual prompts
  • Provide  breaks
  • Teach organisational skills
  • Praise everything that deserve praise no matter how small (promote their strengths not their weaknesses)


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

What is ADHD?

  • Neuro developmental disorder caused by chemical imbalances in the brain
  • Affects more boys than girls
  • Often wrongly branded as being lazy, naughty, disruptive and mischievous
  • Only exhibit inattentiveness and impulsivity behaviour- Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

Main Characteristics




Difficulty sustaining attention

Blurting out answers before question have been completed

Cannot sit still or remain seated as expected

Disorganised and lose things

Difficulty in waiting for turn in tasks

Fidgeting in their seat or playing with items

Fail to pay close attention to details or make careless mistake

Often act before thinking

Always ‘on the go’



  •  Providing positive and timely feedback and praise
  •  Providing organization and structure environment
  •  Be clear and firm in rules
  •  Have a fixed schedule/certain way that tasks unfold
  •  Divide big assignments/tasks into manageable chunks
  •  Curbing distractibility (Seating)
  •  Helping them to follow instructions and directions
  •  Engaging multiple senses
  •  Helping child to self-monitor
  •  Carrying out discipline